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Information And Knowledge Essay


To avoid plagiarism, it can be tempting to include a citation for every sentence, but in some cases over-citation can weaken your academic writing. If you are unsure whether or not a statement counts as common knowledge, ask yourself the questions below.




information and knowledge essay



Watch the time. Take a few minutes at the beginning of the period to plan your essay and at the end to proofread or revise your work. Use all the time wisely. You should not run out of time before you are done; nor should you write an incomplete essay because you did not use all the time allowed. NOTE: You do not have time to write a rough draft and then completely rewrite it. Spend your time writing and editing your final essay.


Write a thesis statement that provides a clear focus for your essay. State a point of view in your thesis that guides the purpose and scope of your essay. Consider the larger point you are trying to convey to the reader and what you want the reader to understand about the topic. Avoid a thesis statement framed as a statement of fact, a question, or an announcement.


Develop the essay according to your purpose. Develop paragraphs fully to give the reader examples and reasons that support your thesis. Note that a good essay for the General Knowledge Test may be longer or shorter than the basic five-paragraph format of some short essays. Do not limit yourself to an arbitrary length. The key is to develop a topic by using concrete, informative details.


Tie your main ideas together with a brief conclusion. Provide a concluding paragraph that ties together the essay's points and offers insights about the topic. Avoid a conclusion that merely restates the thesis and repeats the supporting details. Check your time. If the writing period is almost over, wrap up quickly, so you can proofread or revise.


Revise/proofread the essay to conform to standard American English. Look for particular errors you tend to make. Read the essay from the last sentence to the first and make corrections. Look for words, sentences, or even paragraphs that need changing.


You will have 50 minutes to plan, write, and proofread an start uppercase ORIGINAL end uppercase essay on the topic presented. start uppercase READ THE TOPIC CAREFULLY TO MAKE SURE THAT YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE BEING ASKED TO DO end uppercase .


You must write an start underline original essay that specifically and directly responds to the topic end underline . Pre-prepared essays or essays that are discovered to contain memorized sentences or pre-prepared passages will be invalidated. For example, if the essay raters discover passages that appear in two or more essays, the essays and the violation will be brought to the attention of the Florida Department of Education and may result in the invalidation of your scores.


Your essay should introduce the topic and then explain the topic and/or take a position on the topic and support that position. In order for your essay to be scored, it start underline must address the entire topic end underline .


At least two raters will read your essay, and each will assign it a score. Your essay will not be scored on the position you take or the opinions you express. Your essay will be evaluated holistically according to the following criteria:


Cyberbullying is an issue that continues to receive attention nationally because of the extreme situations that have occurred. Over the past 15 years the annual number of reported incidents of cyberbullying continues to increase. This has much to do with the fact that students are unable to get away from their bullies because of the constant access to technology. For many students the additional use of technology for educational purposes can be a concern because it can lead to increases in such attacks. It is imperative as educators that we be aware of such situations and prepare our plans to minimize these threats. This may seem like a daunting task, however simple strategies can be employed which can easily minimize threats. First, any and all websites used for classroom discussion boards need to have the capability to be monitored and should be monitored by the instructor. Secondly, any posts made by students should be made using a students actual name and not an ambiguous or anonymous username. These two criteria will reduce the number of students that will post inappropriate, offensive or degrading information because they can easily be caught. Additionally educators should have in place guidelines for punishment if a student does bully another student on such sites. For example, any student that posts derogatory information towards another student on a class site should be issued a referal for such action. Harsher punishments can be given to students who continue to bully.


The comprehensive introduction focuses the essay by establishing the context of the thesis. The thesis is clearly identified at the end of the introduction: the essay will focus on strategies to address the threats posed by "cyberbullying" and "lack of focus." The focus of each of the next two paragraphs is explicitly stated in the first sentence of, and maintained throughout, those paragraphs. The thesis is restated in the last sentence of the essay, this time with greater precision, as some of the strategies discussed in the essay ("monitored platforms" and "structured and timed curriculum") are now specifically referenced.


Each paragraph is logically organized, employing a variety of transitional phrases and moving from general to specific with little repetition, as illustrated in the second paragraph. The essay concludes by returning to the main idea without simply repeating it. The conclusion follows from, and finalizes, the argument presented in the essay.


The essay demonstrates appropriate, precise word usage and multiple examples of effective vocabulary (e.g., "imperative," "daunting," "ambiguous," "criteria"). Although its effectiveness is limited by errors in punctuation, sentence structure is mostly varied. The fourth paragraph, for example, shows regular variation between simple, compound, and complex sentences.


In higher grades such as, middle or high school having monthly group charts with the students, will give them an opportunity to see the interent in a different way. Students need to be aware of the dangers and benefits of using the internet and cellphones. Issues such as cyber bullying. Sending naked pictures of themselves and talking to strangers. Remembering that everything you do or say stays there forever. These group chats will not only enhance students knowledge on the internet, but they will start to open up and talk to teachers or mentors if they are being bullied.


In the box provided below, please write your start uppercase ORIGINAL end uppercase essay based on the topic presented. Note that you are limited to 8,000 characters. As you type your response, a character count will appear at the bottom of the response box.


In the box provided below, please write your start uppercase ORIGINAL end uppecase essay based on the topic presented. Note that you are limited to 8,000 characters. As you type your response, a character count will appear at the bottom of the response box.


Setting aside the formal language, the idea that humans must be information processors just because computers are information processors is just plain silly, and when, some day, the IP metaphor is finally abandoned, it will almost certainly be seen that way by historians, just as we now view the hydraulic and mechanical metaphors to be silly.


The intent of this essay is to define and conceptualize information for the purposes and uses of information science/studies. The emphasis is three-fold: 1) the information definition is presented and contextualized within an evolutionary framework, 2) knowledge and data are defined and discussed in relation to the information concept and 3) various theoretical issues surrounding this understanding of information are developed in detail. A companion essay (Bates, in press) presents the same definition, then develops and justifies a series of fundamental forms of information.


A conceptualization of information is obviously central to a discipline named information science. Many major and minor efforts have been made over the years to develop the term and to provide a framework for theory development and further general development of information science (Belkin 1978; Belkin & Robertson 1976; Brier 1998; Brookes 1975, 1980; Buckland 1991; Budd 2001; Day 2001; Derr 1985; Dervin 1977, 1983, 1999; Dretske 1981; Floridi 2002; Fox 1983; Goonatilake 1991; Hjørland 2002b; Losee 1990, 1997; MacKay 1969; Meadow & Yuan 1997; Pratt 1977; Raber 2003; Shannon & Weaver 1975; Thompson 1968; among others). Major collective efforts, with many contributors, have been published in Machlup & Mansfield (1983)and Vakkari & Cronin (1992). There have been many reviews of the literature on the concept also (Aspray 1985; Fischer 1993; Wellisch 1972; Wersig & Neveling 1975; among others), of which Cornelius (2002) and Capurro & Hjørland (2003) appear to be the most recent.


A proper review of these many definitions and discussions of information would be book-length and would make impossible an adequate discussion of the definition proposed in this essay. A brief review of common classes of definitions will be presented and discussed below, while the reader is referred to other sources for a detailed discussion of other views


One source of the variety of approaches may be the many different disciplinary origins of writers on information. Engineering, the natural sciences, a wide array of the social sciences and the humanities have all contributed to the discussion. Ultimately, however, our discipline must surely find a way of thinking about information that is distinctively suitable for our own theoretical and practical uses (Bates, 1987, 1999).


Within information science, it is desirable to develop an understanding of information that is applicable for the various senses in which researchers and practitioners need to talk about information. Buckland (1991) has said that most definitions in the field represent approaches toward information that take information 1) as knowledge, 2) as process, or 3) as thing. Derr (1985), Dretske (1981) and Fox (1983) have followed the knowledge approach, by taking information to be various types of propositional statements. Boulding (1961), Brookes (1980) and Dervin (1977) have taken a different tack within the knowledge approach, by writing of information as constituting additions or changes in a mental map. Finally, after the original submission of this essay, but before the final version was sent in, a paper by A.D. Madden appeared, titled 'Evolution and information', where information is defined as 'a stimulus which expands or amends the World View of the informed' (Madden 2004: 9). This approach constitutes another of the definitions of the additions-or-changes-in-the-mental-map variety. Madden's paper is a reflection on why and how animals need to perceive and communicate information to each other.


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