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Working Mothers

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Book Of Corruption [v0.55 Public] [APK]

The first paper print of the Tirukkuṟaḷ is traceable to 1812, credited to the efforts of Ñānapirakācar who used wooden blocks embossed from palm-leaf scripts to produce copies of the Tirukkuṟaḷ along with those of Nalatiyar.[214] It was only in 1835 that Indians were permitted to establish printing press. The Kural was the first book to be published in Tamil,[215] followed by the Naladiyar.[216] When Francis Whyte Ellis, a British civil servant in the Madras Presidency and a scholar of Tamil and Sanskrit who had established a Tamil sangam (academy) in Madras in 1825 and asked Tamil enthusiasts to "bring to him ancient Tamil manuscripts for publication,"[217] Kandappan, the butler of George Harrington, a European civil servant possibly in the Madurai district, and the grandfather of Iyothee Thass handed in handwritten palm-leaf manuscripts of the Kural text as well as the Tiruvalluva Maalai and the Naladiyar which he found in a pile of leaves used for cooking between 1825 and 1831. The books were finally printed in 1831 by Ellis with the help of his manager Muthusamy Pillai and Tamil scholar Tandavaraya Mudaliar.[217] Subsequent editions of the Tirukkuṟaḷ appeared in 1833, 1838, 1840, and 1842.[30] Soon many commentaries followed, including those by Mahalinga Iyer, who published only the first 24 chapters.[218] The Kural has been continuously in print ever since.[30] By 1925, the Kural literature had already appeared in more than 65 editions[30] and by the turn of the 21st century, it had crossed 500 editions.[219]

Book of Corruption [v0.55 Public] [APK]



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