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Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship"[1]) is a general plan to achieve one or more long-term or overall goals under conditions of uncertainty. In the sense of the "art of the general", which included several subsets of skills including military tactics, siegecraft, logistics etc., the term came into use in the 6th century C.E. in Eastern Roman terminology, and was translated into Western vernacular languages only in the 18th century. From then until the 20th century, the word "strategy" came to denote "a comprehensive way to try to pursue political ends, including the threat or actual use of force, in a dialectic of wills" in a military conflict, in which both adversaries interact.[2]


Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve goals are usually limited. Strategy generally involves setting goals and priorities, determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions.[3] A strategy describes how the ends (goals) will be achieved by the means (resources).[4] Strategy can be intended or can emerge as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes.[3] It involves activities such as strategic planning and strategic thinking.[5]

Professor Richard P. Rumelt described strategy as a type of problem solving in 2011. He wrote that good strategy has an underlying structure he called a kernel. The kernel has three parts: 1) A diagnosis that defines or explains the nature of the challenge; 2) A guiding policy for dealing with the challenge; and 3) Coherent actions designed to carry out the guiding policy.[12]President Kennedy illustrated these three elements of strategy in his Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation of 22 October 1962:

Rumelt wrote in 2011 that three important aspects of strategy include "premeditation, the anticipation of others' behavior, and the purposeful design of coordinated actions." He described strategy as solving a design problem, with trade-offs among various elements that must be arranged, adjusted and coordinated, rather than a plan or choice.[12]

Bruce Henderson wrote in 1981 that: "Strategy depends upon the ability to foresee future consequences of present initiatives." He wrote that the basic requirements for strategy development include, among other factors: 1) extensive knowledge about the environment, market and competitors;2) ability to examine this knowledge as an interactive dynamic system; and3) the imagination and logic to choose between specific alternatives. Henderson wrote that strategy was valuable because of: "finite resources, uncertainty about an adversary's capability and intentions; the irreversible commitment of resources; necessity of coordinating action over time and distance; uncertainty about control of the initiative; and the nature of adversaries' mutual perceptions of each other."[14]

In military theory, strategy is "the utilization during both peace and war, of all of the nation's forces, through large scale, long-range planning and development, to ensure security and victory" (Random House Dictionary).[6]

The father of Western modern strategic study, Carl von Clausewitz, defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war." B. H. Liddell Hart's definition put less emphasis on battles, defining strategy as "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy".[15] Hence, both gave the pre-eminence to political aims over military goals. U.S. Naval War College instructor Andrew Wilson defined strategy as the "process by which political purpose is translated into military action."[16] Lawrence Freedman defined strategy as the "art of creating power."[17]

Modern business strategy emerged as a field of study and practice in the 1960s; prior to that time, the words "strategy" and "competition" rarely appeared in the most prominent management literature.[20][21]Alfred Chandler wrote in 1962 that: "Strategy is the determination of the basic long-term goals of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals."[22] Michael Porter defined strategy in 1980 as the "...broad formula for how a business is going to compete, what its goals should be, and what policies will be needed to carry out those goals" and the "...combination of the ends (goals) for which the firm is striving and the means (policies) by which it is seeking to get there."[19]

In game theory, a strategy refers to the rules that a player uses to choose between the available actionable options. Every player in a non-trivial game has a set of possible strategies to use when choosing what moves to make.

Because counterterrorism involves the synchronized efforts of numerous competing bureaucratic entities, national governments frequently create overarching counterterrorism strategies at the national level.[24] A national counterterrorism strategy is a government's plan to use the instruments of national power to neutralize terrorists, their organizations, and their networks in order to render them incapable of using violence to instill fear and to coerce the government or its citizens to react in accordance with the terrorists' goals.[24] The United States has had several such strategies in the past, including the United States National Strategy for Counterterrorism (2018);[25] the Obama-era National Strategy for Counterterrorism (2011); and the National Strategy for Combatting Terrorism (2003). There have also been a number of ancillary or supporting plans, such as the 2014 Strategy to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, and the 2016 Strategic Implementation Plan for Empowering Local Partners to Prevent Violent Extremism in the United States.[24] Similarly, the United Kingdom's counterterrorism strategy, CONTEST, seeks "to reduce the risk to the UK and its citizens and interests overseas from terrorism, so that people can go about their lives freely and with confidence."[26]

A proposal for a legislative framework for sustainable food systemswill be put forward to support implementation of the strategy and development of sustainable food policy. Taking stock of learning from the COVID-19 pandemic, the Commission will also develop a contingency plan for ensuring food supply and food security. The EU will support the global transition to sustainable agri-food systems through its trade policies and international cooperation instruments.

In 2020, the GPEI launched a revision of the strategy for polio eradication. Partners and stakeholders collectively identified remaining obstacles to polio eradication, in order to inform a revised and strengthened plan. They then developed optimal approaches to reaching the goal, adapted to the global health context and based on lessons learned.

To achieve this, the strategy proposes actions that push the frontiers of knowledge on adaptation so that we can gather more and better data on climate-related risks and losses, and enhance Climate-ADAPT as the European platform for adaptation knowledge.

Typically, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) receives 2-4 reports of severe Cronobacter infections in infants annually from health departments across the country. Public health investigations primarily link these infections to formula contamination during preparation. Although during recent investigations the FDA was unable to determine whether the infants became sick from contaminated product or contamination by other means, the agency has identified opportunities to enhance the safety of powdered infant formula, which are reflected in the strategy outlined below.

We have published several occasional papers which provided input for our recently concluded strategy review. Our occasional papers cover work on subjects related to our main tasks and functions and are aimed at a broad audience.

The ECB and national central banks across the euro area hosted various listening activities with the general public, civil society organisations and academia. Ideas and perspectives shared at these events fed into the strategy review.

Asset owners should describe how climate-related risks and opportunities are factored into relevant investment strategies. This could be described from the perspective of the total fund or investment strategy or individual investment strategies for various asset classes.

Organizations should consider discussing how climate-related risks and opportunities are integrated into their (1) current decision-making and (2) strategy formulation, including planning assumptions and objectives around climate change mitigation, adaptation, or opportunities such as:

The Patent and Trademark Resource Center Program also provides a CBT (computer-based training) tutorial with a detailed review of the step-by-step strategy. The current CBT covers searching using Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

Strategy can refer to the use of tactics in the planning of military operations, usually to succeed in a battle or war. In a military context, a strategy can refer to an overall plan, a specific or broad goal, or the execution of said plan or goal.

Business is another area in which strategy is commonly used. A company will have an overall strategy for growing sales and profits. Meanwhile, the different divisions within the company will have their own strategies for reaching their goals, which help the whole company reach its goals.

The new strategy is founded on three key pillars of successful cloudadoption: security, procurement, and workforce.Collectively, these elements embody the interdisciplinary approach to ITmodernization that the Federal enterprise needs in order to provideimproved return on its investments, enhanced security, and higherquality services to the American people. 041b061a72


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