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Legal Teen Model



This model considers the complex interplay between individual, relationship, community, and societal factors. It allows us to understand the range of factors that put people at risk for violence or protect them from experiencing or perpetrating violence. The overlapping rings in the model illustrate how factors at one level influence factors at another level.




legal teen model



Besides helping to clarify these factors, the model also suggests that in order to prevent violence, it is necessary to act across multiple levels of the model at the same time. This approach is more likely to sustain prevention efforts over time and achieve population-level impact.


After spending years protecting your children from all sorts of dangers on the road and off, you now face the prospect of handing them the keys to the family car. It is time for them to learn how to drive. Are you prepared? We can help you mold your teen into a safe and capable driver.


Teens' inexperience behind the wheel makes them more susceptible to distraction behind the wheel. One in three teens who text say they have done so while driving. Is your teen one of them? Research has found that dialing a phone number while driving increases your teen's risk of crashing by six times, and texting while driving increases the risk by 23 times. Talking or texting on the phone takes your teen's focus off the task of driving, and significantly reduces their ability to react to a roadway hazard, incident, or inclement weather.


Distracted driving can take on many forms beyond texting and talking on the cell phone. Many teens may try to use their driving time to eat their morning breakfast or drink coffee, to apply makeup, or to change the radio station. Many teens are distracted by the addition of passengers in the vehicle. Any distraction is a dangerous distraction. Taking eyes off the road even for five seconds could cost a life.


In a study analyzed by NHTSA, teen drivers were two-and-a-half times more likely to engage in one or more potentially risky behaviors when driving with one teenage peer, compared to when driving alone. According to the same study analyzed by NHTSA, the likelihood of teen drivers engaging in one or more risky behaviors when traveling with multiple passengers increased to three times compared to when driving alone. In fact, research shows that the risk of a fatal crash goes up in direct relation to the number of teenagers in the car.


Most state GDL laws restrict the number of passengers that can ride in a car driven by a teen. Passengers distract an inexperienced teen driver who should be focused only on the road, increasing the likelihood of a crash. If your state does not have passenger restrictions (FL, IA, MS, SD, and ND), establish rules with your teen about who can ride with them and how many people they can have in their car at one time. Make sure your teen follows the rules you set at all times.


Speeding is a critical safety issue for teen drivers. In 2020, it was a factor in 31% of the passenger vehicle teen drivers (15-18 years old) involved in fatal crashes. A study by the Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) found that from 2000-2011, teens were involved in 19,447 speeding-related crashes. There is also evidence from naturalistic driving studies that teens' speeding behavior increases over time, possibly as they gain confidence (Klauer et al., 2011; Simons-Morton et al., 2013). Teens should especially be aware of their speed during inclement weather, when they may need to reduce their speed, or with other road conditions, like traffic stops or winding roads.


If lucky enough to survive a crash as an impaired driver, your teenager will face the consequences of breaking the law. Those include a possible trip to jail, the loss of his or her driver's license, and dozens of other expenses including attorney fees, court costs, other fines, and insurance hikes. Your teen will also stand to lose academic eligibility, college acceptance, and scholarship awards.


Talk to your teen about alcohol and drug use and driving. Establish a no-alcohol-or-drugs rule, set consequences, and enforce them. Remind your teen to never ride with someone who has been drinking or using drugs. Make sure he or she understands that you will always pick them up regardless of time or location.


Tragically, seat belt use is lowest among teen drivers. In fact, the majority of teenagers involved in fatal crashes are unbuckled. In 2020, 52% of teen drivers who died were unbuckled. Even more troubling, when the teen driver involved in the fatal crash was unbuckled, nine out of 10 of the passengers who died were also unbuckled. As teens start driving and gradually gain independence, they don't always make the smartest decisions regarding their safety. They may think they are invincible, that they don't need seat belts. They may have a false notion that they have the right to choose whether or not to buckle up.


To combat drowsy driving, parents should make sure that their teens get sufficient sleep at night by establishing and enforcing a regular bedtime, as well as limiting the use of electronic devices before bed. It has been well-documented that teens on average get far too little sleep on a regular basis, and this can jeopardize their ability to safely and effectively drive a motor vehicle. Too little sleep can also impact their performance in the classroom and during extracurricular activities.


Novice teen drivers are twice as likely as adult drivers to be in a fatal crash. Despite a 9% decline in passenger vehicle driver fatalities of 15- to 18-year-olds between 2011 and 2020, teens are still significantly overrepresented in crashes.


Teen drivers are involved in vehicle crashes not because they are uninformed about the basic rules of the road or safe driving practices; rather, studies show teens are involved in crashes as a result of inexperience and risk-taking. Teen drivers, particularly 16- and 17-year-olds, have high fatal crash rates because of their immaturity and limited driving experience, which often result in high-risk behavior behind the wheel. Peer pressure is an especially potent factor. In a recent NHTSA study, teens were two-and-a-half times more likely to engage in potentially risky behavior when driving with a teenage peer versus driving alone. The likelihood increased to three times when traveling with multiple passengers.


Through research, community partnerships, State safety grant programs, and public awareness campaigns such as National Teen Driver Safety Week, NHTSA demonstrates its dedication to promoting safe teen driving.


What do I do if I receive a subpoena for my testimony or case notes?Let your principal know, and contact your district legal team to get advice on how to proceed. Work with the district legal team to get the subpoena quashed if possible. If you can't do this, then you are compelled to testify. When giving a testimony, provide only facts and omit any subjective information that may make room for doubt. Check your state statutes to see if your state give students privileged communication, which means they can render the school counselor incapable of testifying about their communications. In most cases, the courts are entitled to your testimony, and even in the states awarding privilege communication to minors, judges can exercise discretion if they need the information for the safety and health of the minor.


I want to require all students to complete a survey about any mental health problems, suicidal ideation, counseling needs, psychological problems and family mental health issues they may have. Are there any legal and ethical considerations in conducting this survey?If a school district wants to require students to reveal personal information about themselves or their family, the school must first obtain written parental consent. The Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA) requires schools receiving federal funding to obtain written consent from parents/guardians and non-federally funded schools to give notice before requiring minor students to participate in any survey, analysis or evaluation that reveals information concerning the following areas:


Ford Models and Next Management, two top NYC modeling agencies, are taking their catfight to the Manhattan Supreme Court. Next has accused Ford of poaching three of their top models, Anna Aleksandra Cywinska and Anna Maria Jagodzinska from Poland and Estonian Karmen Pedaru, while all were still under Next contract. In the lawsuit, Next is pulling the 'un-American behavior card': Accusing Ford of waging a "campaign to raid Next's businesses," and, according to the Post, calling Ford's owners "Russian nationals who totally ignore the American legal system." In Russia, legal system ignores you!


Of course, Next knows a thing or two about poaching models. Seattle-born Kendra Spears was a 20-year old college student when Ford discovered her through a MySpace "Supermodel of the World" competition in 2008. After signing a three-year contract with firm, she served Ford a slap to remember by jumping ship to Next in 2009 and continuing a wildly successful career. Still stinging, Ford has sued Next for model-snatching three times in recent years, and one 2009 suit stated, "Incredibly, this is the sixth time in less than a year that Next has wrongfully acquired... models and employees under exclusive contract with Ford."


"It's completely different" is Next lawyer Elizabeth Eilender's response. "It's a completely different situation with different models. Completely different." Hm, if she'd just said "completely" one more time we would have been convinced!


Let the child know that it is OK to talk about what has happened. When children are ready, it helps to be able to talk about the violence in their lives with trusted adults. Answer questions honestly, without too many scary details. Find ways for teens to express feelings, i.e. writing, journaling, poems, art, etc. 041b061a72


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